One day, at the end of 2019, people in the whole world woke up on the news said that Wuhan, China records the first case infected with the new virus COVID-19, which belongs to SARS-COV2 family.
The world was waiting to understand how dangerous the latest virus and know more about its symptoms and how infectious it was. Doctors were working to understand the nature of the virus, source, and how the spread of infection. Within that period, everyone started catching the virus and its infection rates began to rise.
People began to go to the hospital with fever, fatigue, and upper respiratory problems, but the problem was symptoms were severely developing to pneumonia, cyanosis, and respiratory failure. It becomes an international pandemic in 2020. After that, the WHO announced that COVID-19 spreads between humans by droplets and by touching surfaces found on them. Due to the spread of infection, primary diagnostic protocols were prepared as the following:
- Clinical Manifestation
Symptoms: what patients feel is the first journey of diagnosis. If you have symptoms of fatigue, high fever(major), cough, and severe cold symptoms. You must isolate yourself and call an emergency.
Signs: what doctors find helps in making a differential diagnosis and knowing how severe each individual case to know how to deal according to it. Some cases show progress to pneumonia and respiratory failure.
It is the dominant standard and most effective method used for diagnosis. Samples of the test are taken from a respiratory track by nasal pharyngeal swab or amount of extracted sputum, which is fast and safer to health providers. Getting results is for 48 hours.
- Serological Test
Antibody test shows if the blood of a person contains AB against this virus or not, providing previous infection or even current infection. The human body takes about 14-21 days to form immunoglobulins against this virus, which is not confirmed to guarantee full protection or not. FDA approved that it is a fast method for surveillance.
- Chest CT Scan
It is not used for screening; it is used with highly susceptible persons. In early cases, it shows asymmetrical glasses opacities. By the progress of cases, thickening of lobules septum and consolidation are apparent. It is a suitable method for rapid response to incidents.
- Blood Tests
Some scientists say that making CBC, ESR tests could lead you to do more tests to confirm infection, as they notice changes with some cases as high levels of lymphocytes, abnormal shape of some platelets, and increasing ESR time.
In general, the world has reliable methods to diagnose this virus, but with an increasing rate of cases, there will be a need for more rapid and effective ways to help in diagnosing more people in less time and cost.